The International Space Station offers a great testbed for new technology.
This experiment places low-power sensor-nodes in ESA’s Columbus laboratory, Node-2 and the US Destiny laboratory on the International Space Station. The sensors form a wireless network to monitor environmental factors such as temperature, pressure and humidity.
The goal is to test this wireless sensor network in space. Another objective is to see if small amounts of energy could be ‘harvested’ from inside the Space Station, where light, airflows or differences in temperature could be used to return power for experiments such as the system itself.
Aside from the environmental benefits of extracting as much energy as possible a modification of the Wise-Net system could be applied on human beings. A number of low-power sensors on a patient’s body could provide continuous vital-sign monitoring to nurses and doctors in hospitals.
The Aquamembrane experiment will test a new type of membrane that can be used to filter water using biomimetic techniques – copying nature. Recycling water is very important on the International Space Station where supplies are costly and limited.
Already up to 80% of astronaut’s urine, sweat and condensation is reused for drinking after purification in space, but engineers are always looking to improve the process.
The technology behind Aquamembrane requires little extra energy or moving parts and its final goal is to revolutionise water purification on Earth.
Monitoring the quality of the water we drink is extremely important and even more so on the International Space Station where 80% of drinking water is recycled urine. Aquapad aims to simplify the regular testing of the Station’s water. A small quantity of water is absorbed by a cotton swab that reacts to bacteria to form coloured dot. Using the EveryWear application on his tablet, Thomas will take a picture of the dots and EveryWear will calculate precisely how many bacteria are present and whether it is safe to drink.
Although developed for the International Space Station the Aquapad technology is obviously interesting for use on Earth such as in disaster areas when water might be contaminated.
ESA astronaut Thomas Pesquet will setup and run the Echo unit that is a high-performance medical ultrasound to visualise the human body.
A number of ultrasound machines have been sent to the International Space Station since the 1990s but this device is the next generation that allows for researchers on Earth to operate the device and view a high-quality image directly. The astronaut using the device can talk to the researchers and view the same image to follow as he or she places the ultrasound in the right spot on their body.
The challenge in designing Echo was building a small but precise machine that is reactive enough to be operated by researchers many kms away.
The Canadian Space Agency is already planning on using Echo to continue its experiments into the heart as soon as Thomas has checked the equipment.
While in space Thomas will be the first to test a new way to collect information called EveryWear. EveryWear will be used for science experiments, biomedical support and technology demonstrations.
The French-designed technology is as simple as a custom application for a tablet that Thomas will carry around. The application promises to be a huge time-saver as it records and transmits data from as many experiments as possible.
The system can be used for questionnaires, taking medical and clinical logs, monitoring exercise when coupled with the EveryWear Smartshirt and even assess Thomas’s sleep quality. Presently if an experiment requires Thomas to take a log of his diet he would need to write down each piece of food he ingested throughout the day. With EverWear he could simply scan the barcode that is on each pack of food.
For Proxima Thomas will use EveryWear to automatically calculate the amount of the bacteria in the Aquapad experiment as well as for the Skinsuit experiment as a digital questionnaire.